JPyro – Articles

Protocol for the full quantitative analysis of flash compositions

F. Lederle, J. C. Namyslo and E. G. Huebner

Abstract. This paper describes a protocol for the full quantitative analysis of a flash composition. The protocol is based on the separation of the components by basic laboratory handling procedures as a first step. Subsequently, modern and routinely available instrumental analytics are used to quantitatively analyse the components. The protocol may easily be adapted to other pyrotechnic compositions such as whistle formulations or coloured star compositions. The method described here unequivocally allows the control of pyrotechnic mixtures for the absence of highly sensitive chemical combinations. The application of the protocol is demonstrated by the analysis of a flash composition which showed an unusual combustion behaviour. An unexpectedly large amount of silica has been identified to cause the observed properties.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 35, 2016/17, pp9-14 (J35-9)


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Investigations on aerosol emissions of pyrotechnic smoke generators

Jörg Dengel, Christian Lohrer, Felix Stein, and John Perriam

Abstract: Pyrotechnic smoke generators fall under the Directive 2013/29/EU in Europe and could potentially belong to all categories except consumer fireworks. These types are especially present in the field of “Other Pyrotechnic Articles” of the categories P1 and P2, e.g. as simulation devices for paintball or airsoft gaming. The specific users of these products are aware of the corresponding smoke liberation during use and usually wear protective equipment to minimize exposure to potentially harmful aerosols. However, such products are often misused against the labelling requirements in locations where these articles are not supposed to be used, like football stadiums and demonstrations. In contrast to the intended use, uninvolved third parties are likely exposed to these reaction products without proper protective equipment. This study aims at identifying the transient particle size range of the aerosols emitted during the functioning of such common smoke generators for simulation purposes. In total four different types of articles were investigated, with five colors per type (white, blue, green, red, orange). Results show that the majority of the particles were emitted in a range between 40 nm and 350 nm, with some variation depending on the smoke color. Particles with diameters of less than 100 nm are generally of specific concern, as they can penetrate the alveolar system of the human lungs and therefore present a specific hazard.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 35, 2016, pp3-8 (J35-3)


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Flame Projectors for Show Effects – Investigations of Thermal Radiation for Assessing Safety Distances

Lutz Kurth

Abstract: The use of flames as part of shows is state of the art. Besides pyrotechnic flame projectors, the use of projectors that produce flames by burning various gases, liquids and dusts is significantly increasing. In this study infrared radiation in the wavelength range from 7.5 to 14 microns was measured for several systems (flame projectors) and set in relation to known human pain threshold levels. From this relation safety distances been determined for a static scenario (audience watching show) and compared with those of approved pyrotechnic articles.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp31-36 (J34-31)


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Firework Salute Sound Characteristics and Perception: Background and Theory

K. L. Kosanke and B. J. Kosanke

Abstract: The aesthetics of the sound produced by exploding firework salutes is not well addressed in the scientific literature. This paper presents a brief summary of what is known about impulse sounds as it may apply to exploding firework salutes. Also included are three hypotheses relating to the aural and physical perception of such sounds by humans, in the hopes that someone will test and expand on them.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp26-30 (J34-26)


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The European Regulation Concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals

Pierre Thebault

Abstract: The European regulation n°1907/2006 of 18 December 2006 – commonly referred to as “REACH” – states the mandatory registration and evaluation of chemical substances marketed, manufactured or imported in quantities of more than one ton per year on the European market. This obligation not only applies to chemical substances but also to articles which contain chemical substances when they must be considered as associations of articles and chemical substances according to REACH, meaning that their chemical composition determines their function to a greater degree than or the same degree as the special shape, surface or design they are given during production.
In its “Guidance on requirements for substances in articles” (RIP 3.8), the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) mentions fireworks as examples of such associations of articles and chemical substances. The professional experts of CEN/TC 212 who developed the European standards for fireworks under a mandate of the European Commission disagree firmly with this statement. As a consequence they decided to react with their own arguments.
The present paper gives an overview of the arguments of the professional experts of CEN/TC 212, and recalls their previous attempt to promote them at the level of the European Commission and the opening they were given by return that might lead to possible specific action of the European Commission “including, in particular in the Guidance on requirements for substances in articles.” In that perspective and following the same approach that was adopted for ammunition by the European Defence Agency, they decided to prepare a professional guidance document in which they would express clearly their position in contradiction with ECHA’s position. Such document is intended to be presented to the European Commission in order to obtain its support and, consequently, a modification of ECHA’s position.
A task group was created by CEN/TC 212 to do so before the end of 2015.


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp20-25 (J34-20)


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Towards the New Pyrotechnics Directive 2013/29/EU – an Impact Assessment

Christian Lohrer and Jörg Dengel

Abstract: With the coming into force of the new European Directive 2013/29/EU (Official Journal of the European Union L 178/27; 28.6.2013) pyrotechnic articles are regulated in view of making them available on the Union market. This Directive is a recast of the current Directive 2007/23/EC (Official Journal of the European Union L 154/1; 14.6.2007) regarding the placing on the market of pyrotechnic articles and will replace it entirely by July 1st, 2015. In comparison with the current Directive, the complexity and level of detail are increased in the recast version. Furthermore, a variety of new requirements are implemented, which influence the activities of the economic operators and notified bodies. This contribution describes the relevant changes from the viewpoint of the notified body Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), and gives an impact assessment of the new requirements and corresponding suggestions for solutions to problems. The illustrated reforms are not all-embracing, but reflect the most important decisions and consequences.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp13-19 (J34-13)


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Analysis of Impact on Ambient Air Quality of Outdoor Firework Display During Chinese New Year 2013 in Hong Kong

Andrew Tang

Abstract: Outdoor displays have been carried out for many years at Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. These occur at least twice a year on China National Day (CND) and Chinese New Year (CNY) with a show time of about 23 minutes. The 2013 shows attracted many hundreds of thousands of people to watch on both sides of Victoria Harbour for about half an hour. An analysis of the ambient air quality data for 2013 provided by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) was carried out to understand the impact on ambient air quality that may have resulted from the 2013 outdoor fireworks display during the CNY show. The data collected by HKEPD includes carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), respirable suspended particulates (RSP or PM10), fine suspended particulates (FSP or PM2.5), and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The analysis covers a period of 5 days, 2 days prior to and 2 days after the show during CNY 2013. Due to local air movement from east to west at Victoria Harbour and the high bursting of the fireworks display, the smoke that was generated by the fireworks was quickly dispersed. There was no significant impact on the ambient air quality based on the data collected. A trace of temporary smoke cloud was observed at the bursting height of the firing location.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp3-12 (J34-3)


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Quantification of Visible Aerosols from Pyrotechnics: The Effect of Relative Humidity

Rene Yo Abe, Yoshiaki Akutsu, Akihiro Shimada and Takehiro Matsunaga 

Abstract: Light transmission and particle size distribution measurements of aerosol (smoke) emissions from pyrotechnic compositions have been performed in a combustion chamber at atmospheric pressure over a wide range of relative humidity. Maximum light extinction over time is proportional to weight of incinerated sample and shows a characteristic curve over relative humidity for each pyrolant. When critical relative humidity is exceeded, a distinct increase in light extinction is observed, which can mostly be attributed to enhancement of the light-scattering efficiencies of submicrometer particles by hygroscopic growth thereof. The proposed measurement method allows humidity characteristics of pyrotechnic smoke emissions to be compared.


Ref: JPyro, Issue 33, 2014, pp65-72-72 (J33-65)


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Comparison of national “safety distances” at professionally fired firework displays and distances derived from ShellCalc©

Tom Smith & Christian Lohrer

Abstract: There is a wide variety of approaches across the world in determining appropriate “safety distances” for firework displays. Comparison of the different national approaches and distances for shells derived from ShellCalc© highlights the variety and derivation of the “safety distances” adopted and these distances are related to the various failure modes of shells that may affect the audience. It is not intended that this paper should encourage the maximum distances derived always to be adopted, but that an appreciation of the probabilities and hazards of various accident scenarios and therefore the risks involved be part of the decision making process for designers and commissioners of displays as well as enforcing authorities.


Ref: JPyro, Issue 33, 2014, pp53-63 (J33-53)


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Display Fireworks And Stage Pyrotechnics In Use – Which Distances Are ‘Safe’ In Germany And Other Parts Of the EU?

Christian Lohrer

Abstract: Display fireworks and theatrical pyrotechnic articles are widely used in the EU by persons with specialist knowledge for local festivities, events, concerts and various music shows. According to the European Directive 2013/29/EU relating to the making available on the Union market of pyrotechnic articles, these articles are categorized as fireworks of category F4 and theatrical pyrotechnic articles of category T2, respectively. Before these pyrotechnic articles may be made available on the market, manufacturers must ensure that they satisfy the essential safety requirements (ESR) of this Directive. By application of the standard series EN 16261 for F4 articles and EN 16256 for T2 articles an assumption of conformity to the ESR is triggered. Both standards do not specify minimum safety distances to the spectators or to the audience, but give guidance to the Member States for setting up their own regulations for defining the safety distances by means of measured article-dependent performance parameters or construction properties. These safety distances differ between the Member States due to the cultural differences and various methods of calculation. This paper explains the procedures for defining safety distances for F4 and T2 in Germany. Respective advantages and disadvantages are pointed out, and results for identical items, categorized as F4 and T2, illustrate the current measures www.otcsildenafil.net. In addition, a brief overview of the corresponding regulations regarding display fireworks in some other European Member states is presented. The different approaches are compared with each other by calculating the respective safety distances for identical articles.


Ref: JPyro, Issue 33, 2014, pp39-51 (J33-39)


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