Books – Kosanke Articles

Burn Rates of Clusters of Colored Sparklers

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: In recent years it has become generally known that clusters of sparklers burn at substantially greater rates than individual sparklers. However, except for a previous article by the authors, little if any quantitative data has been presented on this subject. As background information, that article contained a brief discussion of burn types and some factors acting to control burn rates. Any reader wishing to review those subjects can consult that article or two other articles presenting more complete discussions. The current article presents some data for 10-inch Red Lantern “Electric Sparklers” (colored sparklers) and discusses some aspects of consumer warnings and directions.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 135-138
(K4_135)
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Pyrotechnic Ignition and Propagation: A Review

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: The ideal pyrotechnic is completely stable in storage and handling, yet performs its mission completely, with absolute reliability, upon demand. Many accidents in pyrotechnics are the result of unintentional ignitions during handling and storage. There can also be serious safety ramifications of ignition and propagation failures of pyrotechnic devices. This review article presents a fairly rigorous, but mostly non-mathematical discussion of the ignition and propagation processes.

Keywords: ignition, propagation, heat of reaction, activation energy, spontaneous ignition, thermal run-away, cook-off


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 122-134
(K4_122)
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Performance Comparison between Old and New Obron German Dark Aluminum

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: In 1997, Obron Atlantic changed their Ger-man dark aluminum. (Their former product number was 5413; the new product was designated 5413 H Super.) We had published the results of a series of sound output tests of various salute powders, which included the effect of using various aluminums, including Obron’s old German dark. Because of our past work, and in response to a query on the Internet, we decided to conduct a brief investigation comparing the sound output of these two aluminum powders when used in a common flash powder formulation. This article presents those results.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 119-121
(K4_119)
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Sky Rocket Performance Characteristics

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: Over the years, we have occasionally had the opportunity to conduct brief studies of fireworks rockets, both sky rockets and smaller bottle rockets. Most recently, an investigation was performed using some Horse Brand sky rockets (Glitterous Lights, Clustering Bees, and Flying Butterflies). This short article is written in the belief that a summary of those results may be of general interest.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 116-118
(K4_116)
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A Survey of Concussion Powders

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: A collection of six commercial concussion powders were test fired in concussion mortars to determine internal mortar pressure, air blast pressure, and the duration of air blast positive phase. The internal mortar pressures for various powder types and load masses ranged from less than 200 to nearly 100,000 psi (700 MPa). For the same powder loads, the air blast pressures at a distance of approximately 70 in. (1.8 m), ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 psi (12 kPa). This corresponds to sound pressure levels (peak–ultra fast–linear) ranging from 148 to 175 dB, and relative loudness values ranging from 1.0 to 6.8. For the same powder loads, the durations of positive phase ranged from nearly 4 ms down to 0.7 ms.

Keywords: concussion powder, blast wave, mortar pressure, sound pressure level, loudness


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 102-115
(K4_102)
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ATF’s Classification of Flash Powders

K. L. Kosanke

ABSTRACT:  This brief article is based on my comments to the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) concerning their classification of all flash powders as high explosives. In this query, I chose not raise the issues of flash powder storage requirements, quantity limits in process buildings, or any of the issues regarding bulk salutes. I omitted those subjects because I was not prepared to make specific recommendations on those subjects at this time. This article was written for publication because of the possibility someone would find this information useful or interesting.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 100-101
(K4_100)
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Burn Rates of Clusters of Gold Sparklers

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: In recent years, it has become generally known that clusters of sparklers burn substantially faster than individual sparklers. However, little if any quantitative data has been presented in the literature. Toward that end, this brief article presents some data collected a few years ago by the authors.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 97-99
(K4_97)
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New Fast Fuse

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke and R. Webb

ABSTRACT: An interesting new fuse is being used on consumer fireworks, reloadable aerial shells. Some of this fuse appears quite similar to normal green Visco (hobby or cannon) fuse but with substantially different burn characteristics. Typical Visco fuse burns at a rate of approximately 0.4 inch per second; the new fuse product burns at a rate of approximately 3 inches per second. Further, under some circumstances, the fuse can burn at a rate of at least 9 inches per second. While there may be some interesting and useful applications for this fuse, its fast burn rate may also pose some considerable danger for an unsuspecting user.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 94-96
(K4_94)
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Flash Powder Output Testing: Weak Confinement

K. L. & B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: A variety of flash powders were tested under weak confinement to determine the sound pressure levels and tonal characteristics produced. In these tests it was found that: the sound output from mixtures prepared with potassium perchlorate from four manufacturers are essentially equivalent; there are significant differences in the level of sound output as a result of using six different common aluminum powders; the addition of either of two common flow or bulking agents have essentially no effect on the sound produced; the substitution of potassium chlorate for potassium perchlorate in a common flash powder has essentially no effect on the sound produced; and the addition of antimony sulfide or sulfur reduces the duration of positive phase without increasing the level of the sound produced. In short, it was found that nothing surpassed the level of sound produced by a 70:30 mixture of reasonably high-quality potassium perchlorate and a high quality flake aluminum powder. This is significant because the use of potassium chlorate, antimony sulfide, and sulfur, can seriously increase the sensitiveness of flash powders to accidental ignition.

Keywords: flash powder, sound pressure level, blast pressure, weak confinement, positive phase


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 83-93
(K4_83)
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Simple Measurements of Aerial Shell Performance

K. L. & B. J. Kosanke

ABSTRACT: In designing the most effective choreographed aerial fireworks displays, it is useful to know when, where, and how each shell burst will appear. To do this, in addition to aesthetic features like colors, etc., three aerial shell performance parameters are needed. These parameters are: time to shell burst after firing, burst height above the ground, and burst spread. It can be difficult and expensive to generate these. However, all three can be generated using a slightly modified video camera and videocassette recorder (VCR). Further, it will generally be possible to collect the raw information during the performance of actual displays; so there is no cost for the test fireworks. This article suggests a method to gather shell performance data.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 78-82
(K4_78)

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