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Development and Qualification Testing of Pyro-cartridge for Signal Cartridge Applications

Bhupesh A. Parate

Abstract: This research work describes the development and qualification aspects of a pyro-cartridge device for signalling cartridge applications in an emergency, as required by military aircraft. Rapid and effective burning of illuminating composition plays a crucial role in military applications. For initiation of illuminating cartridge, a pyro-cartridge is used. A pyro-cartridge consists of energetic materials (EM), such as lead styphnate, and releases the energy by rapid a chemical reaction process. It releases the energy instantaneously so that striker from pyro-cartridge can then initiate the signalling cartridge. This signalling cartridge provides pre-coded signals with four different colours (Red, Green, Yellow and White) fitted in the dispenser of an aircraft system. The most important part of this work is to develop a pyro-cartridge and qualify its testing to ignite the composition of signalling cartridges through various design qualification tests, such as drop test and sealing test. The functional tests of signal cartridges using pyro-cartridge at hot and cold temperature is observed successfully. The electrical parameters such as all fire current, no fire current, ignition delay, determination of energy and power of squib are also covered in this research article.

Keywords: All fire current; bridge wire; Bruceton staircase; cartridge; ignition delay; no fire current; pyro- qualification; signalling cartridge; squib; testing

 


Ref: JPyro 2020 (11-21)


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A Thermal Study of Mixtures of Micron-sized Copper (II) Oxide, Aluminum and Magnalium

Richard Harrison

Abstract: The reaction temperature in ignited samples of thermite compositions containing CuO and varying proportions of aluminum and magnalium was monitored at 1ms intervals by means of small embedded thermocouples. Analysis of the temperature profiles reveals that, in all cases, an exothermic minimum in the region of 950 K provides a significant contribution to the period from ignition to thermal runaway. The profiles were found to contain features that are attributable to both aluminum and magnesium (or magnalium) across the whole temperature range, indicating, in contrast to a commonly held belief about such mixtures, that the two metals were active participants at all stages of the reaction.

 


Ref: JPyro 2020 (1-10)


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An investigation into the sensitivity of commonly used electric igniters

Tom Smith, Avril DiPalma, Gabrielle DiPalma and Lincoln Parkhouse

Abstract: A variety of commercially available and commonly used electric igniters were tested for sensitivity to shearing, crushing and static stimuli in an attempt to reproduce “real world” usage of igniters and to determine which igniters were more or less sensitive to the various stimuli used.  The apparatus was designed and built to be able to be reproduced by anyone in order for them to gain a better understanding of the sensitivity of the igniters they use in their displays.

NOTE: we have made a minor revision to Table 2 in the paper to remove colours from the screening electrostatic trial.  This does not affect the results or conclusions.


Ref: JPyro, Issue 36, 2018, pp3-11 (J36-3)


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Protocol for the full quantitative analysis of flash compositions

F. Lederle, J. C. Namyslo and E. G. Huebner

Abstract. This paper describes a protocol for the full quantitative analysis of a flash composition. The protocol is based on the separation of the components by basic laboratory handling procedures as a first step. Subsequently, modern and routinely available instrumental analytics are used to quantitatively analyse the components. The protocol may easily be adapted to other pyrotechnic compositions such as whistle formulations or coloured star compositions. The method described here unequivocally allows the control of pyrotechnic mixtures for the absence of highly sensitive chemical combinations. The application of the protocol is demonstrated by the analysis of a flash composition which showed an unusual combustion behaviour. An unexpectedly large amount of silica has been identified to cause the observed properties.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 35, 2016/17, pp9-14 (J35-9)


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Investigations on aerosol emissions of pyrotechnic smoke generators

Jörg Dengel, Christian Lohrer, Felix Stein, and John Perriam

Abstract: Pyrotechnic smoke generators fall under the Directive 2013/29/EU in Europe and could potentially belong to all categories except consumer fireworks. These types are especially present in the field of “Other Pyrotechnic Articles” of the categories P1 and P2, e.g. as simulation devices for paintball or airsoft gaming. The specific users of these products are aware of the corresponding smoke liberation during use and usually wear protective equipment to minimize exposure to potentially harmful aerosols. However, such products are often misused against the labelling requirements in locations where these articles are not supposed to be used, like football stadiums and demonstrations. In contrast to the intended use, uninvolved third parties are likely exposed to these reaction products without proper protective equipment. This study aims at identifying the transient particle size range of the aerosols emitted during the functioning of such common smoke generators for simulation purposes. In total four different types of articles were investigated, with five colors per type (white, blue, green, red, orange). Results show that the majority of the particles were emitted in a range between 40 nm and 350 nm, with some variation depending on the smoke color. Particles with diameters of less than 100 nm are generally of specific concern, as they can penetrate the alveolar system of the human lungs and therefore present a specific hazard.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 35, 2016, pp3-8 (J35-3)


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JPyro – Issue 34, 2015 – Contents

Papers:

 


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Flame Projectors for Show Effects – Investigations of Thermal Radiation for Assessing Safety Distances

Lutz Kurth

Abstract: The use of flames as part of shows is state of the art. Besides pyrotechnic flame projectors, the use of projectors that produce flames by burning various gases, liquids and dusts is significantly increasing. In this study infrared radiation in the wavelength range from 7.5 to 14 microns was measured for several systems (flame projectors) and set in relation to known human pain threshold levels. From this relation safety distances been determined for a static scenario (audience watching show) and compared with those of approved pyrotechnic articles.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp31-36 (J34-31)


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Firework Salute Sound Characteristics and Perception: Background and Theory

K. L. Kosanke and B. J. Kosanke

Abstract: The aesthetics of the sound produced by exploding firework salutes is not well addressed in the scientific literature. This paper presents a brief summary of what is known about impulse sounds as it may apply to exploding firework salutes. Also included are three hypotheses relating to the aural and physical perception of such sounds by humans, in the hopes that someone will test and expand on them.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp26-30 (J34-26)


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Towards the New Pyrotechnics Directive 2013/29/EU – an Impact Assessment

Christian Lohrer and Jörg Dengel

Abstract: With the coming into force of the new European Directive 2013/29/EU (Official Journal of the European Union L 178/27; 28.6.2013) pyrotechnic articles are regulated in view of making them available on the Union market. This Directive is a recast of the current Directive 2007/23/EC (Official Journal of the European Union L 154/1; 14.6.2007) regarding the placing on the market of pyrotechnic articles and will replace it entirely by July 1st, 2015. In comparison with the current Directive, the complexity and level of detail are increased in the recast version. Furthermore, a variety of new requirements are implemented, which influence the activities of the economic operators and notified bodies. This contribution describes the relevant changes from the viewpoint of the notified body Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), and gives an impact assessment of the new requirements and corresponding suggestions for solutions to problems. The illustrated reforms are not all-embracing, but reflect the most important decisions and consequences.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp13-19 (J34-13)


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Analysis of Impact on Ambient Air Quality of Outdoor Firework Display During Chinese New Year 2013 in Hong Kong

Andrew Tang

Abstract: Outdoor displays have been carried out for many years at Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. These occur at least twice a year on China National Day (CND) and Chinese New Year (CNY) with a show time of about 23 minutes. The 2013 shows attracted many hundreds of thousands of people to watch on both sides of Victoria Harbour for about half an hour. An analysis of the ambient air quality data for 2013 provided by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) was carried out to understand the impact on ambient air quality that may have resulted from the 2013 outdoor fireworks display during the CNY show. The data collected by HKEPD includes carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), respirable suspended particulates (RSP or PM10), fine suspended particulates (FSP or PM2.5), and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The analysis covers a period of 5 days, 2 days prior to and 2 days after the show during CNY 2013. Due to local air movement from east to west at Victoria Harbour and the high bursting of the fireworks display, the smoke that was generated by the fireworks was quickly dispersed. There was no significant impact on the ambient air quality based on the data collected. A trace of temporary smoke cloud was observed at the bursting height of the firing location.

 


Ref: JPyro, Issue 34, 2015, pp3-12 (J34-3)


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