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Theory of Colored Flame Production

B. E. Douda

Abstract: The theories and attributes associated with the production of colored flames are presented. Particular attention is given to flames containing strontium (red), barium (green), sodium (yellow) and copper (green or blue). Thermal excitation of vaporized neutral atoms, molecules and ions is correlated with the emission of atomic, band and ionic spectra. These spectra are tabulated. The color contribution of C-type chemiluminescence, a non-thermal excitation, is described briefly. The variability of emitters, emissions and color with the operating flame temperature is discussed in relation to the thermodynamic properties of the reactants and the products of combustion. These thermal properties are tabulated. Ionization is shown as a contributor to color degeneration. The use of an ionization buffer to reduce ionization is explained. Depending on flame conditions and the metal being used, the influence of halogens on the production of color is discussed. The influence is not always beneficial. The flame equilibrium shift caused by the halogens is described for each of the metals. Metals and anions other than the halides are discussed in relation to their ability to intensify or suppress emission. The preferred emitters for each of the metals are listed, and idealistic postulates are presented which apply to the production of color in a flame.

This paper was originally published as RDTN No. 71, 20 March 1964 by the U. S. Naval Ammunition Depot, Crane, Indiana, USA

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ESI for JPyro, 26, 2007, p24

Ignition and Combustion of Aluminium in High Explosives

Attached are three SEM-images of the aluminium powder used in the study at different resolutions

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5th Workshop on Pyrotechnic Combustion Mechanisms, held October 6th 2007 in Beane, France

Ernst-Christian Kocha and Rutger Webbb

For the fifth time the “Workshop on Pyrotechnic Combustion Mechanisms” was held and organized in conjunction with the International Pyrotechnics Seminar. This time it was the 34th IPS Seminar in conjunction with EUROPYRO 2007, in Beaune, France.

This workshop had a total of 21 participants, of which 4 were from France, 4 from Germany, 4 from USA, 3 from the UK, 2 from The Netherlands, 1 from South Africa, 1 from Japan, 1 from Russia, and 1 from Finland.

This event received very positive feedback from both participants and presenters. Papers based on the following presentations have already, or are expected to be published elsewhere.

• Volker Weiser, Fraunhofer ICT, Germany, Modeling Spectral Emission and Radiation Intensity of Pyrotechnic Reactions

• Alexander Dologoborodov, Semenov Institute Moscow, Russia, Mechanoactivated Energetic Composites on the Base of Metal – Oxidizer Mixtures

• Selena Burn, BAE Systems, UK, Personal Protective Equipment

The next workshop on pyrotechnic combustion mechanisms will be held on July 13 2008 in Fort Collins Colorado in conjunction to the 35th International Pyrotechnics Seminar. The topics then will focus on safety and sensitivity of pyrotechnics. For further information on that event please refer to www.pyroworkshop.net


Ref: JPyro, Issue 26, 2007, pp23-23
(J26_23)

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Review of: Bombs and Bombings,

A Handbook to Protection, Security, Detection, Disposal, and Investigation for Industry, Police, and Fire Departments, Third Edition.

Reviewed by: Megan Bottegal, BS. and Bruce McCord, PhD.

This book is an overview of the vast and personal experience Captain Thomas Brodie has accumulated in twenty-four years as a founder of the Miami Bomb squad and supervisor of its crime scene unit. Over the course of his career, Captain Brodie investigated approximately 350 bombings and assisted in the disposal of over 4000 bombs and tons of explosives. He is a charter member of the International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators and among other awards and honors, he was knighted by the Queen Elizabeth II for his role in protecting the British Empire in the Caribbean. Captain Brodie’s experiences arise from his role in developing, adapting, and utilizing a variety of tools for bomb detection, disruption and disposal during his service to the city of Miami, and the counterterrorism community.

Click download link below for more information


Ref: JPyro, Issue 25, 2007, pp59-59
(J25_59)
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Review of: Introduction to Fireworks

Reviewed by Theodore S. Sumrall

Introduction to Fireworks is an excellent text and reference manual for scientists and engineers involved in energetic material research and development.

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Ref: JPyro, Issue 25, 2007, pp58-58
(J25_58)
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Explosive Limit of Armstrong’s Mixture

K. L. and B. J. Kosanke

When investigating the cause of an accident, it was necessary to learn something about the lower explosive limit with regard to phosphorus content in Armstrong’s Mixture. A short literature search did not produce the needed information; thus a brief laboratory study was undertaken. Because the results of the study may be useful regarding safety and because they may be intrinsically interesting, this short article was prepared.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 4, (1995-1997), pp 42-43
(K4_42)
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Further information about HDPE Mortars

Someone recently raised the question as to whether there could be potential problems with high density polyethylene (HDPE) mortars from contact with detergents and from exposure to sunlight. This article was drafted in response to a request to address those concerns and also to present an update on the status of acceptance of HDPE mortars by display companies and regulatory agencies.

With respect to HDPE and contact with detergents, it was suggested that some detergents may be capable of attacking HDPE. I knew of no such detergent and after checking with an expert in the field, Mr. David Tebeau of AFD, Inc., I still do not know of any such detergents. I do not feel there is any reason to avoid contact between HDPE and detergents; in fact most liquid detergents are packaged in polyethylene containers.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 1, (1981-1989), pp 118-119
(K1_118)
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Reduction of Shell Ignition Failures

A shell ignition failure means there will be a live dud in the fallout area after a display. If that dud is not retrieved, is found by a member of the public, and that person is subsequently injured as the result of mishandling the dud shell, an insurance claim against the shooter and manufacturer will almost certainly result. This article presents a discussion of one method which can result in a significant reduction of the number of shell ignition failures.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 1, (1981-1989), pp 107-108
(K1_107)
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CMC – Its Properties and Uses

CMC, as it is commonly called, is more properly referred to as Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (carboxy-methyl-cellulose). In the food industry it is also frequently referred to as cellulose gum.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 1, (1981-1989), pp 106-106
(K1_106)
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Japanese Shell Break Radii

(Derived from data provided by Dr. T. Shimizu, private communication)

The National Fire Protection Association, Technical Committee on Pyrotechnics is in the process of revising NFPA-1123, Code for the Outdoor Display of Fireworks (formerly called Public Display of Fireworks). In preparation for considering the appropriate separation distances between spectators and mortar placements and between spectators and fall-out areas, it seemed that it would be helpful to know how great the break radius was for hard-breaking spherical shells. Thus an attempt was made to collect that data. It was also felt that the data would be of general interest to the pyro-community; it was in that belief that this article was prepared.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 1, (1981-1989), pp 104-105
(K1_104)
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