High-Nitrogen Fuels for Low-Smoke Pyrotechnics

David E. Chavez, Michael A. Hiskey and Darren L. Naud*

ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that the highnitrogen compound, 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT), can be utilized as a pyrotechnic fuel requiring small amounts of metal salts for coloring the flame. In addition, DHT pyrotechnic formulations using non-metallic oxidants, specifically ammonium perchlorate and ammonium nitrate, produce little smoke when burned. In light of this application of high-nitrogen compounds, we have determined that two other high-nitrogen fuels, bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate (BTAw), 5,5'-bis-1H-tetrazole (BT) and their salts are likely candidates for low-smoke pyrotechnic fuels. The various characteristics of these fuels have been examined in some detail; these include impact sensitivity with and without oxidant ammonium perchlorate, spectra of colored flames, and thermal analyses of their hydrates and salts.

Keywords: high nitrogen fuel, low smoke, pyrotechnics, bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine,5,5'-bis-1H-tetrazole, 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine.

Ref: JPyro, Issue 10, 1999, pp17-36

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