K.L. and B.J Kosanke
Introduction: Over the past 25 years, the percentage of spherical aerial shells that fall to the ground as duds after firing has substantially decreased. (This is especially true for shells from China.) Obviously this is a good thing, and it is a result of such things as improvements in the quality of the time fuses being used and the methods of their priming, and because of the near universal adoption of redundant fusing techniques. However, the improvement has not been so great as to reduce the percentage of dud shells to zero. Nonetheless, the reduction in the number of dud shells, in conjunction with the use of substantially increased separation distances introduced approximately 15 years ago. combine to afford a high level of spectator protection from dud shells during typical displays.[3,4] Further, the increased attention to dud searches both immediately following and at first light on the morning after land-based displays has mostly eliminated accidents resulting from dud shells left behind to be found by children.
Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of K.L. and B.J Kosanke, Part 6, (2001-2002), pp 42-45
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