Hazard Assessment and Effect of Nano-Sized Oxidizer on Sound Level Analysis of Firecrackers

T. L.Thanulingam,  A. Jeya Rajendran,  P. Karlmarx,  K. Subramanianc and A. Azhagurajan

Abstract: Nano-sized sulphur and oxidizers were synthesized by the ball mill method and the size was determined using a particle size analyzer. Pyrotechnic mixtures of compositions using five different oxidizers: potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium  perchlorate (KClO4), barium nitrate (Ba(NO3)2), strontium nitrate (Sr(NO3)2) and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), in different particle sizes, mixed with sulphur (S), aluminium (Al) and boric acid (H3BO3), were used to produce sound producing cake-bomb firecrackers for analysis. A bulk density of 0.24–0.68 g cm−3 was maintained for homogeneity of the mixture. The sound level from newly formulated sound producing firecrackers (cake-bombs) showed a linear relationship with the weight of the mixture taken. Decreasing the particle size from micro to nano improves the efficiency of firecrackers using the oxidizers, KNO3, KClO4  but not for Ba(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2., or Bi2O3. The analysis of safety characteristic data of thermal and mechanical sensitiveness indicates that the pyrotechnic mixture using the oxidizer KClO4 is highly sensitive to friction and impact. The limiting impact energy (LIE) of pyrotechnic compositions falls in the range of 2.55–4.51 J. LIE of nano materials was less compared to micro materials indicating that as the particle size decreases, the mixture is prone to hazards from impact. Thermal analysis indicates a high temperature for self propagating decomposition making the mixture thermally stable at room temperature. 

Keywords: Sound level, pyrotechnic mixture, impact sensitiveness, friction sensitiveness, flash composition, firecrackers.


Ref: JPyro, Issue 28, 2009, pp95-111
(J28_95)


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