A Thermal Study of Mixtures of Micron-sized Copper (II) Oxide, Aluminum and Magnalium

Richard Harrison Abstract: The reaction temperature in ignited samples of thermite compositions containing CuO and varying proportions of aluminum and magnalium was monitored at 1ms intervals by means of small embedded thermocouples. Analysis of the temperature profiles reveals that, in all cases, an exothermic minimum in the region of 950 K provides a significant contribution …
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ISEM 2021

The details of the upcoming international symposium on energetic materials, ISEM2021, in Tokyo, Japan, have just been published. http://www.jes.or.jp/isem/2020/  

An investigation into the sensitivity of commonly used electric igniters

Tom Smith, Avril DiPalma, Gabrielle DiPalma and Lincoln Parkhouse Abstract: A variety of commercially available and commonly used electric igniters were tested for sensitivity to shearing, crushing and static stimuli in an attempt to reproduce “real world” usage of igniters and to determine which igniters were more or less sensitive to the various stimuli used.  The apparatus …
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Investigations on aerosol emissions of pyrotechnic smoke generators

Jörg Dengel, Christian Lohrer, Felix Stein, and John Perriam Abstract: Pyrotechnic smoke generators fall under the Directive 2013/29/EU in Europe and could potentially belong to all categories except consumer fireworks. These types are especially present in the field of “Other Pyrotechnic Articles” of the categories P1 and P2, e.g. as simulation devices for paintball or …
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Flame Projectors for Show Effects – Investigations of Thermal Radiation for Assessing Safety Distances

Lutz Kurth Abstract: The use of flames as part of shows is state of the art. Besides pyrotechnic flame projectors, the use of projectors that produce flames by burning various gases, liquids and dusts is significantly increasing. In this study infrared radiation in the wavelength range from 7.5 to 14 microns was measured for several …
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Firework Salute Sound Characteristics and Perception: Background and Theory

K. L. Kosanke and B. J. Kosanke Abstract: The aesthetics of the sound produced by exploding firework salutes is not well addressed in the scientific literature. This paper presents a brief summary of what is known about impulse sounds as it may apply to exploding firework salutes. Also included are three hypotheses relating to the …
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The European Regulation Concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals

Pierre Thebault Abstract: The European regulation n°1907/2006 of 18 December 2006 – commonly referred to as “REACH” – states the mandatory registration and evaluation of chemical substances marketed, manufactured or imported in quantities of more than one ton per year on the European market. This obligation not only applies to chemical substances but also to …
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Analysis of Impact on Ambient Air Quality of Outdoor Firework Display During Chinese New Year 2013 in Hong Kong

Andrew Tang Abstract: Outdoor displays have been carried out for many years at Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. These occur at least twice a year on China National Day (CND) and Chinese New Year (CNY) with a show time of about 23 minutes. The 2013 shows attracted many hundreds of thousands of people to watch …
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Quantification of Visible Aerosols from Pyrotechnics: The Effect of Relative Humidity

Rene Yo Abe, Yoshiaki Akutsu, Akihiro Shimada and Takehiro Matsunaga  Abstract: Light transmission and particle size distribution measurements of aerosol (smoke) emissions from pyrotechnic compositions have been performed in a combustion chamber at atmospheric pressure over a wide range of relative humidity. Maximum light extinction over time is proportional to weight of incinerated sample and …
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Comparison of national “safety distances” at professionally fired firework displays and distances derived from ShellCalc©

Tom Smith & Christian Lohrer Abstract: There is a wide variety of approaches across the world in determining appropriate “safety distances” for firework displays. Comparison of the different national approaches and distances for shells derived from ShellCalc© highlights the variety and derivation of the “safety distances” adopted and these distances are related to the various …
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