Books – Shimizu Articles

Part II. Temperature Measurement of Flames by Means of the Line-Reversal Method

ABSTRACT:  Using the theory developed in Part I, flame temperatures for various fireworks compositions have been measured by means of line-reversal of the Na-D lines. (1) For low flame temperature compositions: Compositions that contain combustible organic materials (i.e., shellac, rosin, pine root pitch, etc.) are commonly used in ordinary fireworks. The author prepared various combinations of components to see the influence of oxidizers, fuels, color agents, etc. Temperatures are measured by method 1 from Part I. The result shows that the highest temperature appears at the base of the flame. Generally potassium perchlorate gives higher temperatures than ammonium perchlorate. Potassium nitrate always gives lower temperatures than other oxidizers.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 3,  pp 15-37
(Sh3_15)
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Part I. A Theoretical Development of the Line-Reversal Method for Flame Temperature Measurement

ABSTRACT:  A fireworks flame generally contains many solid or liquid particles, which cause a continuous spectrum. In order to apply the linereversal method of temperature measurement to such flames, the author introduced a theoretical equation, which denotes the ratio of the intensity of the resonance lines to that of the neighboring part of the spectrum when a standard light beam is introduced into the spectroscope through the flame. This equation shows very clearly that as long as the flame does not contain so many particles that it prevents the standard light beam from permeating the flame, the line-reversal method is always effective. Using this equation, the author proposes a method of measuring flame temperatures that are higher than the maximum brightness temperature of the standard light. The author applied this method to two examples of hightemperature fireworks flames of some magnesium powder compositions and obtained the temperatures of 3,159 and 3,214 K.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 3,  pp 1-14
(Sh3_1)
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Appendix

Appendix and Tables


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 141-164
(Sh4_141)
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Chapter 9 — Discussion and Conclusion

Tests of bursting warimono shells that were manufactured under various conditions were conducted on the ground, and the position of moving stars were analyzed by a photographic method. To make the analysis easy, ring star shells were employed as test shells. The results showed the quantitative relations among design factors, which were not clear until this study. These data were introduced into empirical equations concerning the ballistics of stars, which are useful for designing the chrysanthemum shell.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 140-141
(Sh4_140)
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Chapter 8 — Examples of Designing Chrysanthemum shells

8.1 Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Values

The accuracy of the empirical equation for the initial velocity of a star was examined in Section 6.5.5. The accuracy of flight velocity can be examined by the probability deviations of the constant n' and log vo. Therefore, the author only compared the results obtained from the empirical equation with the results of experiment.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 134-139
(Sh4_134)
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Chapter 7 — Equations for Practical Use in Designing Shells

Continuation of Formulae for calculating the velocity of stars


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 126-130
(Sh4_126)
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Chapter 6 — Formulae for Calculating the Velocity of Stars

First, the author studied the law of motion of stars in the air. The velocity of stars at distant points from the shell burst was then related to the initial velocity of each star. The conditions that produced these initial velocities were investigated, and from this information, equations useful in the designing of shells were developed.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 48-125
(Sh4_48)
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Chapter 5 — Supplementary Experiments: Measurement of the Burn Velocity of Burst Charges and Stars in the Normal Atmosphere

To obtain these data, the 16-mm movie camera was used. A Black Powder pasted paper strip was arranged on a piece of metal mesh. Grains of burst charge, or stars, were arranged on the strip at intervals of about 5 cm, and the paper strip was ignited at one end. The grains or stars ignited one by one. They were photographed from a distance of about 1.5 meters.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 46-47
(Sh4_46)
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Chapter 4 — Method for Experiments on Shell Burst, Preparation and Preliminary Calculations

4.1. Experimental Method

Three types of bursting charge were prepared:

a) potassium perchlorate

b) black powder

c) potassium chlorate

The stars were made with potassium perchlorate as the oxidizer. Sample 5- and 6-inch chrysanthemum shells were prepared with these materials. The shells were reinforced by pasting them with Japanese or Kraft paper. The samples were ranked based on the number of paper layers.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 18-45
(Sh4_18)
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Chapter 3 — Problems in Designing Chrysanthemum Shellspj

In manufacturing chrysanthemum shells, most of the effort of fireworkers has been directed towards obtaining a certain number of ‘petals’ and at the same time obtaining a large flower radius. In this paper the author evaluates the fundamental conditions required to meet these objectives. The problems are two-fold. The first problem is the initial velocity attained by the stars from the action of the burst charge, that is, the problem deals with the explosion (or bursting) of the shell. The next problem is the motion of the star, which, once initially accelerated, flies in air with a trajectory of some sort and travels is one of ballistics.


Ref: Selected Pyrotechnic Publication of Dr. Takeo Shimizu, Part 4,  pp 7-17
(Sh4_7)
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