Archive for February 2009

JPyro Board Members

We thank the following for their work as Board members of the Journal of Pyrotechnics

Izaskun Astondoa
Pirotecnia Astondoa, S.A.
Barrio Irupago s/n
48143 Areatza (Bizkaia)

Pierre Thebault
Etienne LACROIX Tous Artifices S.A.
Route de Gaudies

Andrew Tang
Tian Cheng Pyrotechnics
Lihua Village
Yanxi Town
Liuyang City
China 410304

Ettore Contestabile
Canadian Explosive Research Lab
555 Booth Street
Ottawa, Ontario KA1 0G1 Canada

Per Alenfelt
Nammoliab AB

Alexander van Oertzen
Unter den Eichen 87
12205 Berlin

Christian Lohrer
Unter den Eichen 87
12205 Berlin

Tadao Yoshida
Ashikaga Institute of Technology
268-1 Omae-cho, Ashikaga-shi, Tochigi 326-8558,

Bonnie Kosanke
PyroLabs Inc
1775 Blair Road
CO 81527, USA

Tom Smith
CarnDu Ltd
8 Aragon Place, Kimbolton
Huntingdon, Cambs.UK
PE28 0JD

and the following for editors and production

Helen Saxton
CarnDu Ltd
8 Aragon Place, Kimbolton
Huntingdon, Cambs, UK
PE28 0JD

Avril DiPalma
CarnDu Ltd
8 Aragon Place, Kimbolton
Huntingdon, Cambs, UK
PE28 0JD

Theory of Colored Flame Production

B. E. Douda

Abstract: The theories and attributes associated with the production of colored flames are presented. Particular attention is given to flames containing strontium (red), barium (green), sodium (yellow) and copper (green or blue). Thermal excitation of vaporized neutral atoms, molecules and ions is correlated with the emission of atomic, band and ionic spectra. These spectra are tabulated. The color contribution of C-type chemiluminescence, a non-thermal excitation, is described briefly. The variability of emitters, emissions and color with the operating flame temperature is discussed in relation to the thermodynamic properties of the reactants and the products of combustion. These thermal properties are tabulated. Ionization is shown as a contributor to color degeneration. The use of an ionization buffer to reduce ionization is explained. Depending on flame conditions and the metal being used, the influence of halogens on the production of color is discussed. The influence is not always beneficial. The flame equilibrium shift caused by the halogens is described for each of the metals. Metals and anions other than the halides are discussed in relation to their ability to intensify or suppress emission. The preferred emitters for each of the metals are listed, and idealistic postulates are presented which apply to the production of color in a flame.

This paper was originally published as RDTN No. 71, 20 March 1964 by the U. S. Naval Ammunition Depot, Crane, Indiana, USA

This paper is free to download

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